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In this delightful twitter thread you can see how ordinary Italians are figuring out ways to pass their enforced time indoors, enjoying some good clean fun. Today, that particular period of plague is known as “the Plague of St. Charles,” because the Archbishop pointedly did not flee the city, instead personally attending to the thousands of sick and expending his own money to relieve them. THE MOST HOLY EUCHARIST (Cann. It would be imprudent for any bishop to risk the spread of infection!”  Such people are conveniently forgetting that the Church has, in its nearly 2000-year history, plenty of experience dealing with widespread (and often far worse!) God alone knows the number of Catholic priests around the world, who over the centuries have had to struggle to minister to the faithful while risking arrest by a government hostile to the faith. needy, even if they have not received an offering. In some nations this is still true today! Which Mass Fulfills My Sunday Obligation? When (and How Much) Can a Bishop Tax a Parish. 953 No one is permitted to accept more as soon as possible to priests acceptable to him, provided that he is certain Those who entrust to others Masses to be Click here for more information. 1 Tim 1:18), not the kind that brings division but the kind that gathers people together. Open wide the doors to Christ…. his statue today stands in the U.S. Capitol, Then-Pope John Paul II publicly described. It only reveals it.”. Click here to hide the links to concordance, BOOK IVFUNCTION OF THE CHURCH (Cann. With all that being said, there is one other, very significant complicating factor in all of this: in some parts of the world (such as right here in the Diocese of Rome), civil authorities have declared it illegal for priests to celebrate Mass for the faithful. One of many examples is Saint John Southworth (1592-1654), who was ordained abroad and then returned to England to minister secretly, and illegally, to the Catholic faithful. A Parish Priest may draw a stipend of £10 per Mass from general parish funds for each pro populo Mass he is obliged by office to offer (Can. The amazing fact is, Damien’s superiors didn’t want him to dedicate himself so entirely to the poor lepers who depended on him, mostly because his conduct contrasted so dramatically with their own, far less generous ministry. Members of all religious institutes must also If you’re Italian, you understand perfectly the Pope’s reference to “Don Abbondio,” a fictional character in Alessandro Manzoni’s classic Italian novel I Promessi Sposi (often translated as The Betrothed). causes or those obliged in any way to see to the celebration of Masses, whether The pastor of a parish is, as per canon 519, to exercise pastoral care of the community entrusted to his care under the authority of the diocesan bishop; and canon 528.2 expands on this, stating (among other things) that the parish priest is to take care that the blessed Eucharist is the center of the parish assembly of the faithful, and that they are nourished by the devout celebration of the sacraments, particularly frequent reception of the sacraments of the Eucharist and penance. Commentary on Mass Facing the Altar (Ad Oreintem) Description. established in the place where the donor resides, unless the intention of the “All the priests of the diocese,” who did not have the virus, “were ordered by the bishop to self quarantine” instead of ministering to the faithful entrusted to their care—and they complied. At this point in history, when so many of our priests are being ordered not to celebrate Mass and give Holy Communion to the faithful, there shouldn’t be any need to explain how Blessed Miguel Pro’s life and martyrdom should serve as a model for Catholic clergy today. In the part of the Missal containing the Order of Mass, the section titled Ordo Missae sine populo in the 1970/75 editions, now called Ordo Missae, cuius unus tantum minister participat in the 2002 edition, presuppose one server. And when American Catholics heard about this brave priest and his missionary work in Moloka’i, and began sending him financial aid … the bishop criticized Damien for accepting it, as it made him, the bishop, look bad. There are also some acceptable longer-term reasons for not attending Mass on Sunday. 958 §1. Readers who are old enough to remember his election as Pope on October 16, 1978 may recall these memorable words, uttered at his inaugural Mass just after his election as Pope: Do not be afraid. works. He is a new glory for the beloved nation of Mexico and for the Society of Jesus. It seems there has to be some limitation on this authority. 946 The Christian faithful who give an A hired man, who is not a shepherd and whose sheep are not his own, sees a wolf coming and leaves the sheep and runs away, and the wolf catches and scatters them. If you’re at particular risk for contracting the virus (i.e., elderly and/or already sickly), and medics in your region have urged people like you to stay home, then you shouldn’t feel any sort of guilt about not attending Sunday Mass! (Long live Christ the King!). (Here’s a terrific website, with an ongoing 54-day rosary novena for this intention.) Being a spineless coward, Don Abbondio does exactly that, because (as the text makes clear) his primary concern is his own safety and comfort, not the good of the people of his parish. Can. In short, the Pope was telling Catholic clergy, “Man up and serve your people, don’t behave like that!”. None of the content of this website may be reproduced, either in whole or in part, without the advance written permission of the author. to be excluded entirely from the offering for Masses. Our LLM in Canon Law is the first degree of its type at a British University since the Reformation. During the plague which struck Rome in 1591, the Jesuits opened a hospital to minister to the victims, tending to both their bodies and their souls; and while Aloysius could not administer sacraments to them (since he was not yet a priest), this member of a wealthy noble family voluntarily served them as a nurse, and paid for his generosity with his life. Wojtyła himself would publicly celebrate Mass there in an open field (without a permit!) Can We Be Required to Receive Communion in the Hand, Because of the Virus? No Catholic is expected to risk his life in order to fulfill his Sunday obligation. There is a huge difference between a bishop dispensing the faithful from attending Mass (i.e., telling them that they don’t have to come), and a bishop cancelling all public Masses (i.e., telling the faithful that they can’t come). What is canon law and why is it important? Sometimes this offering is called a stipend. John 16: 22). In some countries where the bishops have cancelled all public Masses, such as Ecuador, it is said that this was done by a decree of the Bishops’ Conference. Yes, Lombardy has been very badly hit. Similarly, the Church has always equated “keeping the Sabbath holy” with “Mass attendance,” since it holds that the Eucharist is the source and summit of the Christian life (c. 897, which is based on Lumen Gentium 11). (To confer sacraments legally in a diocese, for instance, the Code requires that a priest obtain faculties from the bishop.) 945 §1. In the meantime, we lay Catholics need to pray for our clergy as never before. c. 843.1, as discussed in many articles in this space, such as “Can You be Refused Holy Communion If You Kneel?” and “Can a Baby be Baptized During Lent?”). province the offering to be given for the celebration and application of Mass, Are Catholics Supposed to Abstain from Meat Every Friday? Canon law scholars are also seeking a link with the empirical social sciences (e.g., sociology, anthropology, and other such disciplines), which is required for insight into and control of the application of canon law. In accord with the approved practice Readers from all around the world have emailed to ask fundamentally the same question: can a diocesan bishop actually cancel all public Masses, thus actively preventing the faithful from getting to Mass and receiving the sacraments? He felt at home with them. Sure, if you’re ill or otherwise homebound, watching Mass live-streamed on your laptop is certainly better than nothing. The servant of the Word consequently became a suffering servant, a leper with the lepers, for the last four years of his life. A priest who concelebrates a second Mass on the The Catechism of the Catholic Church and the Canon Law states that the Holy Mass is the foundation and confirmation of all Christian practice. (Code of Canon Law, Can. Canon Law On Catholic Funerals In general, Roman Catholics are to be given a Catholic funeral on their death. and accepted. You should consider yourself dispensed and not feel a shred of guilt about it! In some dioceses, bishops have recently explained this, and correctly. vigilance that Mass obligations are fulfilled belong to the local ordinary in churches When the Belgian Father Damien (1840-1889) volunteered to minister to the leper colony on the Hawaiian island of Moloka’i in 1873, there was no known cure for the highly contagious disease (sound familiar? Q1: The Irish Bishops have decided to cancel all public Masses and have told us that we have a dispensation from Sunday Mass obligations as a result of the Coronavirus. by the ordinary, while allowing for some recompense by reason of an extrinsic Refusing First Holy Communion to Children Who Are Ill-Prepared, Ecclesia Supplet: Making Invalid Sacraments Valid, Invalid Baptisms and Unaccountable Clergy. Masses are asked to be celebrated than can be celebrated there, it is permitted In accord with the approved practice of the Church, any priest celebrating or concelebrating is permitted to receive an offering to apply the Mass for … Mk 10:30)…. We’ll first have a look at what the law says about diocesan bishops’ responsibilities and the extent of their authority; and then we’ll turn to the responsibilities of our parish clergy. We see here a group of bishops who have the correct theological understanding of the critical importance of the Mass: when faced with a problem that makes it difficult for people to attend, they are finding a legitimate way around it, so as to ensure that everyone can still come to Mass. Pursuant to which provision in Canon Law may a diocesan bishop suspend or cancel public Masses? Presumably they were supposed to do this in order to save their own lives. It is recommended earnestly to priests that they How Can a Priest Transfer to Another Diocese? It strains the bounds of credulity to think that there is a Catholic diocesan bishop on this planet who doesn’t understand that his “number one priority” is the salvation of souls, rather than of bodies … but there you have it. As a general rule, therefore, Sunday Mass attendance is not optional! Rest assured that such declarations are utterly unprecedented! was given, but subject to the rule that, except on Christmas, he is to keep the You could say that obedience wasn’t exactly a hallmark of Damien’s ministry. Damien fought tooth and nail with the bishop who had authority over the Hawaiian Islands at the time—and many of their letters, which are still extant, attest to this fact. The Catholic Church has considered Sunday to be the Sabbath day from time immemorial; it is presumed that the Apostles established this because Jesus rose from the dead on a Sunday. §3. Re-post: Can We Receive Holy Communion Twice on Christmas Day? Because the matter directly affects the Most blessed Sacrament, even the slightest appearance of profit or simony would cause a scandal. an offering to apply the Mass for a specific intention. –Marc, Q3: The Bishop here in Singapore decided to cancel and/or suspend all public Masses indefinitely. Canon (Canon Missæ, Canon Actionis) is the name used in the Roman Missal for the fundamental part of the Mass that comes after the Offertory and before the Communion. Bottom line: if a Catholic priest receives an illegal order from an ecclesiastical superior, to the effect that he must not celebrate Mass publicly, or administer any sacraments to the Catholic faithful, for fear of maybe spreading the virus … faith should triumph over fear. They frequently tried to stop him; and in response, he frequently ignored them, doing whatever it took to provide what he knew his people needed, for both body and soul. Once again, we can turn to events and individuals in the Church’s historical past for guidance. For a person of faith, does it make sense to fear that God will reward our trust in Him, by letting parishioners who confidently come to Mass catch the virus there? even if the offerings received have been lost through no fault of his own. Strictly speaking, he could have been charged by the police for violating the terms of the national lockdown, because he and his assistant were on the streets for what was technically an “unauthorized” purpose; yet as you can see they were unmolested—perhaps because God Himself was with them. begins on the day the priest who is to celebrate them received them unless it If the information on this website has helped you, please consider making a contribution so that it can continue to help others. an Episcopal Conference, is.) (It is a cruel irony that St. Charles’ successor, the current Archbishop of Milan, was the very first Italian bishop to order all public Masses suspended—despite no urging from the government, and at a very early point in the crisis, while all Milan’s bars, restaurants, museums and shops were still open. The old canon 857 of the 1917 code was reworked and became the current canon 917. . Contrast the actions of these priest-martyrs, if you can bear it, with messages like this one, informing the Catholic faithful that “The Sunday and weekday Masses are cancelled for your protection by order of the Archdiocese” (emphasis added) … and draw your own conclusions. A person who intends to entrust to These sorts of emergencies are normally temporary and so once they cease, the person simply resumes Sunday Mass attendance again. ), and he knew full well that prolonged contact with the lepers was basically a death sentence. In the past Cathy has published articles both in scholarly journals and on various popular Catholic websites, including Real Presence Communications and Catholic Exchange. 1247, 1248.1) wasn’t invented out of thin air: it is based on the Third Commandment, given to Moses by God, telling us to keep the Sabbath holy. But far, far different are the shockingly high number of announcements that all public Masses are cancelled, and the faithful are not allowed to come to Mass or receive the sacraments. §4. Archbishop. But the Pope spoke directly to the parish clergy, and made pretty obvious reference to the fact that at least some of them are indeed heroically ignoring episcopal orders and threats of arrest by civil authorities, in order to minister to the faithful: I would also like to thank all priests, the creativity of priests. If you know that you’ll instantly be carted away in handcuffs, it makes no sense to throw open the church doors and inform the whole world that you’re about to say Mass (although some clergy have defiantly done just that! For unknown reasons, his messages to clergy (like this March 13 letter to the priests of Rome) don’t seem to be getting much attention lately—and in this case, the English translation is still missing from the Vatican website. The canon of Sacred Scripture is the list of books recognized by the church as inspired by the Holy Spirit. Canon 1688 The judge of second instance, with the intervention of the defender of the bond and after consulting the parties, is to decide in the same way as in canon 1686 whether the judgement is to be ratified, or whether the case should rather proceed according to the ordinary course of law, in which event he is to send the case back to the tribunal of first instance. Please note: the Law Bod holds very little printed material in canon law on its open shelves. The message is perfectly obvious. Have you got something better to do?”. (John 10:11-15). Polish bishops are handling the current situation in the right way: they have declared that since public gatherings have been limited by the Polish government to a certain number of people, the way to ensure that the people can get to Mass is … to offer more of them! Re-post: Confession and General Absolution. of secular clergy and to the superiors in churches of religious institutes or The pastor and the rector of a church But as we all know, it’s not only diocesan bishops who have responsibility for the spiritual welfare of the Catholic faithful; parish priests do too. Canon 1245 of the Code of Canon Law states: “Without prejudice to the right of diocesan bishops mentioned in Canon 87, for a just cause and according to the prescripts of the diocesan bishop, a pastor can grant in individual cases . CHAPTER III : THE OFFERING MADE FOR THE CELEBRATION OF MASS Can. But let’s look at two examples of Catholic priests who courageously risked their lives—and lost them—in order to provide for the spiritual needs of the faithful. In those areas of the world where the civil government will not hesitate to arrest those priests who dare to offer Mass for the faithful (here’s a heart-breaking example up in Brescia, Italy, where the anti-Catholic mayor of the city personally busted into a parish church for a “routine check”), it is naturally far more difficult for parish clergy to minister to all the members of their parishes as usual. offering to apply the Mass for their intention contribute to the good of the The period of time allowed before a new law after its official promulgation goes into force is known in the terminology of Canon Law as the vacatio legis. Perhaps some readers are thinking, “Surely you don’t suggest that priests should disobey their superiors, if their bishops have ordered them to cancel Masses because of the virus?”  This is a very dangerous way to phrase the question, as it suggests that a Catholic priest must obey whatever his superior tells him, simply because he is the superior. Similarly, a Catholic who lives in a region where there is no Catholic priest for hundreds of miles, or finds himself stuck indefinitely in an active war zone surrounded by land mines, or is working for many months on the International Space Station orbiting the earth, obviously can’t get to Mass! §2. Dear Reader: The Code of Canon Law answers your question, especially canons 945-958, which address the offering for the celebration of Mass. And be sure to check out the pictures!) Can. –Eileen, Q2:  As a follow up to your most recent question/answer on receiving communion, can a Bishop cancel Masses for an indefinite period of time, essentially prohibit all public worship on an open- ended basis, and dispense EVERYONE generally from Sunday Mass attendance and Holy Days of Obligation? If we can’t live in Poland, would that we all lived in the French diocese of Pays de l’Ain, where Bishop Pascal Roland is adamantly insisting that the churches remain open, and Mass and the sacraments be available for whoever needs/wants them! Can. A lot of news is coming from Lombardy about this creativity. Of course this is probably just a coincidence.). What Happens When a Religious Who’s Vowed Poverty Becomes a Bishop? That’s not because bishops do indeed have authority to do this; rather, there’s no explicit discussion of this in the code because bishops’ responsibility for the spiritual welfare of the faithful is supposed to be perfectly obvious. For their heroism, these men have been beatified and canonized, respectively, by the Catholic Church—which did so in order to encourage the faithful to pattern our lives after theirs. Timothy Olson, J.C.L., is a canon lawyer from North Dakota serving on the Board of … Regarding Mass Stipends, the Canon Law of the Catholic Church states: Canon Law # 945 §1 "In accordance with the approved custom of the Church, any priest who celebrates or concelebrates a Mass may accept an offering to apply the Mass for a specific intention. Compare this scandalously selfish, cowardly mentality with the heroism evidenced in Catholic saints and blesseds throughout the centuries, who died of diseases which they had contracted while ministering to and caring for others. But what subsequently happened? offering for only one Mass and transfer the others to the purposes prescribed 945 §1 In accordance with the approved custom of the Church, any priest who celebrates or concelebrates a Mass may accept an offering to apply the Mass for a specific intention. Can. A: If you’re rubbing your eyes and feeling like you’ve entered some sort of Catholic alternate reality, you have a lot of company. He was keenly aware that he could be arrested—his colleague the Venerable Stefan Wyszynski, Cardinal Archbishop of Warsaw and Gniezno, had been imprisoned by the government for years—but this clearly did not deter him. Unsigned/anonymous questions are not read, much less answered (why is it necessary even to mention this?). In the 1960’s, it was Bishop Wojtyła who for years openly fought with the civil authorities in the Polish city of Nowa Huta—a new “ideal city” built by the communists, which had no church. How could you in good conscience follow this unethical directive … and think that you can later claim to have done the right thing, despite the spiritual harm done to countless Catholics who asked you in vain for the sacraments which you deliberately withheld from them—because you “had to obey the bishop”? Today, the relics of Saint John Southworth are honored in Westminster Cathedral—the Catholic cathedral in London, not to be confused with non-Catholic Westminster Abbey—and Catholics praying at his tomb are a common sight. As Marc rightly puts it, this “essentially prohibit[s] all public worship on an open-ended basis.”  Can a bishop do this? For those who do not possess an advanced degree in theology or who have had no previous training in philosophy, 24 graduate credits in theology (8 courses or two semesters) are required, covering (in general) dogmatic theology, ecclesiology, sacramental theology, and moral theology. He is also obliged to see to the celebration of the Masses 954 If in certain churches or oratories more Can. Blessed Antonio of Olmedo was a priest and member of the Mercedarians, who died of the plague in Chile, which he caught from those sick Catholics to whom he was ministering. As we saw in “Tithing and Excommunication,” nobody can be required by law to do something that is humanly impossible. With regard to the issue under discussion here, this is true both in cases where the ruling came from the national Bishops’ Conference, and when its source is one’s individual bishop or other religious superior. Blessed Miguel Agustin Pro (1891-1927) was a Mexican Jesuit priest who lived during the regime of Mexican President Calles, who brutally persecuted the Catholic Church and unapologetically sought to stamp it out altogether, executing thousands of priests in the process. 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